Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 12.1 Problems/challenges for science-policy interfaces in SEAMLESS-IF
Science-policy interface
Pre-modelling phase
− Problem definition
Selection of problem situations looked at/left aside
− Resolution
Technology (model-data)
Post-modelling phase
− Discussion
Scientific networks as vehicles to channel scientific input to policy;
policy issues' influence on education of scientists
− Strategic analysis
− Balance between economic, environmental and social impacts
− Completion of the database/complexity of indicators
− Model uncertainty/sensitivity analysis of the outputs based on
the premises of the models
issues will be tackled and others let aside. It is a main challenge to make this
outcome evident for the policy makers. The “ resolution ” challenge relates to
the outcome of an informed discussion between the policy maker and the researcher
resulting in selection of the suitable data, choice of the right algorithms, and the
relevant indicators.
During the post-modelling phase , researchers face discussions where results
can be contested. In fact, scientific researchers never act alone. They belong to
institutions and to networks. Without always being fully aware of it, the researcher
brings the ideas from his/her networks into the work. Through the models, hypotheses
are introduced in the formulation of the question to be assessed. In turn, the policy
makers influence the scientific education. During the strategic analysis other issues
have to be addressed, such as how to balance economic, environmental and social
impacts; how to select which outputs of the modelling, among all the available ones,
shall be considered as 'the results'; and how the potential causes of uncertainty
shall be presented.
In conclusion, the EC's Impact Assessment Guidelines suggest science-policy
relations where scientists and experts share their knowledge and capabilities.
The design of the procedure and the outputs given by SEAMLESS-IF (as far as we
may deem it) come close to that model. The following section reports on the ways
scientific knowledge and policy values were deliberated during development of the
framework and in test applications.
Case Studies: Establishing a Debate
The two cases presented below report about interactions with potential users
during development of the SEAMLESS-IF. The first case describes interaction
with officers at the EC to explore their views on how the framework should be
developed in order to suit assessment work in the DGs. The second case describes
the interaction with representatives at regional level in France when setting up
assessments in test situations.
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