Environmental Engineering Reference
formulation) to assure a uniform recording of observations. Instead a standardized
way of recording had to be developed that interfered with the aim of having diversity
in problem representations.
Separating End-Users and Modellers
The aim of an integrated framework to use models in managing complex situations
rather than in sharply defined areas of research, results in people with little modelling
or quantitative background relying on models while not being in a position to judge
their quality or appropriateness. Linking models from different disciplines in a single
framework implies that this danger not only applies to use of the framework by
non-modellers as identified by Jakeman et al. (2006) , but also to modellers relying
on inputs from models outside their discipline. Being unaware of limitations,
uncertainties, omissions and subjective choices may lead to invalid conclusions by
wrongly interpreting model results and/or applying models for purposes for which
they are not designed.
The only way to mitigate these risks is to generate wider awareness of the
modelling process, choices made, good practice for testing and applying models and
the interpretation of model results. Within SEAMLESS-IF these considerations are
accounted for in the design of the framework separating pre- and post-modelling
from the modelling phase to which only integrative modellers have access. Although
this reduces the risks of having users with limited quantitative background running
models, it still allows modellers to use tools from other disciplines without
sufficient background information. This latter risks can probably only be mitigated
by having analyses done by a team of modellers from different disciplines, which
may be hard to realize in practice.
Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank all the participants of SEAMLESS-IF involved
in testing as well as the students that have worked on the testing specific components of
Adelman, L. (1992). Evaluation decision support and expert systems . New York: Wiley.
Béguin, P., & Cerf, M. (2004). Formes et enjeux de l'analyse de l'activité pour la conception de
systèmes de travail. @ctivités, 1 , 54-71.
Belhouchette, H., Therond, O., Adenaeuer, M., Kuiper, M., Bigot, G., AlkanOlsson, J., Wery, J.,
et al. (2007). Documentation of baseline and policy options to be assessed with Prototypes 2
and 3, D220.127.116.11 . SEAMLESS Integrated Project, EU 6th Framework Programme, contract no.
010036-2, www.SEAMLESS-IP.org , 112 p.
Belhouchette, H., Wery, J., Therond, O., Bergez, J.E., & van Ittersum, M. (2006a). Design of
scenarios for integrated impact assessment of interactions between EU policies and
agro-ecological technologies using SEAMLESS-IF . Proceedings of the IX ESA Congress
(Pt. III), Warsaw (Poland), pp. 11-20.