well as their food preferences are included in the concept of food security. There are four
conceptual elements to food security, which include:
domestic production or imports (including food aid);
a nutritious diet;
reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met; and
vidual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access
to food as a consequence of sudden shocks or cyclical events.
The concept has a hierarchical dimension, where food availability is a necessary but not suf-
( Figure 2.1 ).
Adequate food availability is the cornerstone upon which food security rests, as consuming
sufficient macronutrients (carbohydrate, fat and protein) is required for health and well-being.
Although for most of human history, lives were short and unhealthy because of lack of ade-
quate food, beginning in the eighteenth century a succession of countries was able to provide
the entire population with adequate food, transforming both individual health and the
economy of the region, enabling a great increase in economic productivity (Fogel, 2004). By
the twentieth century, nearly all communities and countries were able to provide adequate
Food security is achieved…
An area: crop
vegetation or crop
condition, amount and
timing of rain, drought,
market availability of
food, food prices, imports,
exports, public stocks,
household stocks, wild
food availability, etc.
care of infants, feeding
and food preparation
of health and sanitation
facilities, water supply
Household/community: local household food crop and
animal production, household sales of goods and
services, conditions of other income sources, labor
wage rates, food aid, assets, etc.
FIGURE 2.1 Foodsecurityismadeupoftheutilization,availabilityandaccesstofood,whichcan
be assessed at the individual, area and community levels of analysis (source: Gary