Agriculture Reference
In-Depth Information
• Increaseinvestmentintransportationinfrastructureandmaintenancetoreduceisolation
of productive rural regions to urban markets (Garg et al ., 2013; Dillon and Barrett,
• Increaseinvestmentinagriculturalinstitutionstoensureappropriateextensionofscient-
ific advances and improved agronomic practices tuned to the local market opportunities
and agroecosystems (Lofchie, 1987).
• Promoteeffectivegovernanceofthestatecapacitytomonitormarketdevelopment,to
enable a better understanding of price transmission and market functioning (Brown et al .,
• Encourageinvestmentincashcropsforsmallholderagriculturaliststomeettheneedsof
expanding urban areas (Woodward, 1995; Moseley, 2010; Moseley et al ., 2010).
• Focusassistanceandextensionservicestothepoorestcommunitieswhoaremostfood
insecure, to improve the resilience of their livelihood approach (Reardon and Taylor,
• Institutesustainableandappropriatemacro-economicpoliciesthatreducethenegative
impact of exchange rates and protective industrial policies on the agriculture sector
(Kherallah et al ., 2000b).
Development strategies to improve food access
For over a decade, it has been clear that food security is not about food production. In eco-
nomies where agriculture is a dominant livelihood, increasing farm incomes so that house-
holds can afford to purchase food when they experience decreases in production is an
important objective. These farmers also need to supply enough surplus food for the nearby
urban areas that are rapidly increasing in size. Raising incomes require development across
many sectors, including transportation, rule of law, market efficiency, agricultural techno-
logy, institutional support and many others. Thus in order to achieve food security, it is
necessary to:
• ensuresuficientlocallyaccessiblefoodproduction;
• improvelocallivelihoodoptionstoincreaselocalincomes;
• increasedinstitutionalstrengthtoincreasetechnologytransfertomakeagriculturemore
• enableaccesstoglobalmarketsforfoodforsaleofsurplusesandpurchaseofneededfood
in times of low production.
Ultimately, it will depend on the private sector to meet the needs of the agricultural com-
munity, since external development funds are so difficult to obtain and hard to focus on the
need of the local community (Brown, 2006). Providing enough economic growth needed to
boost the incomes of the food insecure will ultimately be the responsibility of the people
themselves. The lesson of the past 30 years is stark; engagement with the private sector,
increasing institutional involvement and integrity, and improving development outcomes,
and hence food security outcomes is necessary to move forward.
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