Agriculture Reference
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wide-ranging evidence on food insecure people to provide core answers to the following
• Howsevereisthesituation?
• Whereareareasthatarefoodinsecure?
• Howmanyfoodinsecurepeopleliveintheseregions?
• Whoarethefoodinsecurepeopleintermsofsocio-economiccharacteristics?
• Whyarethepeoplefoodinsecure?
The IPC has four functions: to build technical consensus, to classify severity and causes, to
communicating severity for action, and to provide quality assurance. The IPC is the descen-
dent of the food security indicators developed by Frankenberger and Downing in the early
1990s, but allows for a much greater focus on outcome than the more process-oriented
metrics that were used previously. The IPC also brings an analytical framework that builds
from four widely used conceptual frameworks: the Risk = f (Hazard, Vulnerability) used by
the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) framework, Sustainable Livelihoods Approach, Nutri-
tion Conceptual Model and the four “dimensions” of food security (availability, access, utili-
zation and stability).
Understanding what the nutritional status and mortality indicators are and being able to
link them to environmental dynamics as well as food access is an important aspect of the
work. Table 8.3 provides a description of indirect measures of nutritional status and where an
TABLE 8.3 Indicators of nutritional status from the IPC Handbook
Indirect indicator
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS),
Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), Nutrition
studies (e.g., Centre for Research on the
Epidemiology of Disasters, Complex Emergency
Database (CRED CEDAT database)
Admissions to feeding programs
Health Information System Data Sentinel site data
Prevalence of night blindness
(children under 5/pregnant
Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (pregnant
Prevalence of low birth weight
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
Household iodized salt
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
Iron and folic acid
supplementation programs to
pregnant women
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and the
Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)
Vitamin A supplementation
programs to children under 5
and/or breastfeeding mothers
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
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