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There is perhaps a greater probability of achieving concrete gains in the preven-
tion of exploitation at the grassroots level, where there is an urgent need to explore
alternative ways of strengthening the protective capacities of vulnerable people.
Nevertheless, guidelines, despite their limitations, can be tools for women to use
in advancing their rights, and can also serve as a moral force for the state and other
committed parties.
Alliances for Africa (2006) Women in governance and decision making initiative in Imo State,
south east Nigeria. = 63
Alvarez Castillo F, Lucas JC (2009) Fairness and gender in benefit sharing: Learning from the
Kani, San, Nigerian, Kenyan and Icelandic cases for moving forward. UP Manila J Special
Issue. University of the Philippines Manila, Manila.
Alvarez-Castillo F, Feinholz D (2006) Women in developing countries and benefit sharing. Dev
World Bioeth 6(3):113-121
Alvarez-Castillo F, Lucas JC, Cordillera Castillo R (2009) Gender and vulnerable populations in
benefit sharing: An exploration of conceptual and contextual points. Camb Q Healthc Ethics
Andanda P (2009) Vulnerability: Sex workers in Nairobi's Majengo slum. Camb Q Healthc
Ethics 18(2):138-146
Andanda P, Lucas JC (2007) Majengo HIV/AIDS research case. A report for GenBenefit.
Becker H (2003) The least sexist society? Perspectives on gender, change and violence among
southern African San. J South Afr Stud 29(1):5-23
Bonn Guidelines (2002) The Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and
Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization. Secretariat of the Convention
on Biological Diversity, Quebec.
Canadian Heritage (2007) Canada's new government supports Aboriginal women in British
Columbia. News release, 19 January.
index-eng.cfm?action = doc&DocIDCd = CR061264
CBD (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity.
CBD (2004) Akwé: Kon voluntary guidelines for the conduct of cultural, environmental and
social impact assessments regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are
likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by
indigenous and local communities. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity,
CBD (2010) Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable
Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Chennells R (2007) San Hoodia Case. A Report for GenBenefit.
CIOMS (2002) International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human sub-
jects. Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences.
CPWP (2007) Promoting women's participation in decision making at the commune level in
Cambodia. Report to the World Bank. CPWP Secretariat, SILAKA, Phnom Penh. http://sit
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