Wu Bangguo (1941-): Native of Anhui; second highest-ranking
member of the Chinese Communist Party; head of China's rubber-
stamp National People's Congress. No friend of democratization in
China, Wu is perhaps most famous (or infamous) for his statements
in 2007 that “Hong Kong will have as much power as Beijing wants it
to and nothing more” and in 2009 that “Without a single Communist
Party in control, China would be torn by strife and incapable of accom-
Wu Peifu (1874-1939): Northern Chinese warlord who fancied him-
self a scholar and a gentleman; defeated during the Northern Expedi-
tion; infamous for machine-gunning strikers in Beijing in 1923.
Wu Wang: See King Wu.
Wuer Kaixi (b. 1960s?): Student leader during the 1989 Tiananmen
Square student movement; a fiery Uighur who offended Li Peng with
Xiang Yu (232-202 B.C.): Aristocrat and rival of Liu Bang for power
after the fall of the Qin dynasty in 206 B.C.; dramatically committed
suicide when Liu Bang triumphed over him; his story is a favorite
theme for operatic performances.
Xuanzong: See Tang Xuanzong.
Xunzi (ca. 300-237 B.C.): Confucian philosopher who taught that
human nature is innately predisposed toward evil and that goodness
(ren) is the result of conscious, concerted effort and submission to li,
or conventions of correct behavior.
Yang Guifei (719-756): Tang dynasty beauty who stole the heart of
Tang emperor Xuanzong (r. 712-756); sometimes blamed for contribut-
ing to the decline of the Tang dynasty.
Yao (early cultural hero): Legendary figure credited with perfecting a
calendar and choosing a competent minister rather than his son as his
Yongle (1360-1424): Third Ming emperor (r. 1403-1425) who trans-
ferred the Ming capital from Nanjing to Beijing.