Geography Reference
In-Depth Information
defeated remnants of his government and military fled to Taiwan after
losing the civil war on the mainland to the Chinese Communists.
Chinggis Khan (1167?-1227): Mongol conqueror during late twelfth
and early thirteenth centuries; subjugated much of Central Asia but
left China unconquered.
Chu Hsi: See Zhu Xi.
Cixi, Empress Dowager (1834-1908): Powerful Manchu imperial
clan woman and the real authority behind the throne from 1862 until
her death in 1908; her encouragement of the Boxers led to catastrophe
for China.
Confucius (551-479 B.C.): Eastern Zhou philosopher and the domi-
nant figure in Chinese intellectual history; taught a this-worldly phi-
losophy emphasizing familial and social harmony and the
importance of benevolence, or human-heartedness.
Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997): Second major leader of the People's
Republic of China from 1977 until his death in 1997; reversed many
of Mao's ruinous policies, liberalized the Chinese economy, opened
China to the outside world, and apparently ordered the Tiananmen
Square Massacre of June 4, 1989.
Duke of Zhou (fl. twelfth century B.C.): Brother of Zhou dynasty King
Wu and regent to King Wu's young son and successor; tutored the
young heir and surprised many people by relinquishing his political
power when the heir reached his majority; regarded by Confucius as
the epitome of morality, loyalty, and virtue.
Elgin, Lord (1811-1863): Former governor-general of Canada; led
two expeditionary forces, one against Canton and Tianjin in 1857 and
1858 when he bullied the Qing into signing the Treaty of Tianjin, and
another in 1860 when he fought his way into Beijing, burned the Man-
chu Summer Palace, and forced the Qing to sign the Convention of
Elliot, Charles (fl. 1830s): British official, appointed superintendent
of trade in 1836; responsible in part for the outbreak of the Opium
War between Britain and China.
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