If the radius of the circle in the preceding figure is r, the area of the quarter circle
, and area of the square enclosing the circle is r2.
Imagine a thought experiment where you build this quarter circle and square on a
large canvas and you throw darts. If you throw sufficient darts, the ratio of darts that
fall within the circle are proportional to the area of the circle. Same is the case with
The r code is provided in the electronic format. The results are:
The following figure illustrates examples of a few visualization capabilities in R: