Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
part of DSM is to constrain the need for new electricity capacities. DSM
involves peak clipping, strategic conservation, valley filling, load shifting,
strategic load growth and flexible load shaping. It may include interruptible
services or curtailment of services for specified time periods for commer-
cial customers. Peak clipping refers to reducing the customer demand dur-
ing peak electricity use periods. This is done by using some form of energy
management system. Valley filling increases the electricity demand during
off-peak periods, which allows the utility to use its power generating equip-
ment more effectively. Load shifting is like valley filling, since it uses power
during off-peak periods. Both valley filling and load shifting programs can
involve power or thermal storage systems.
Load growth planning is a related DSM program that encourages
demand during certain seasons or times of the day. Flexible load shaping
modifies the load according to operating needs and can result in inter-
ruptible or curtailment rates for customers. These DSM energy and load-
shaping activities are implemented in response to utility-administered
programs. There may be energy and load-shape changes arising from nor-
mal actions of the marketplace or from government-mandated energy-ef-
ficiency standards. In the late 1980s, utilities began offering commercial re-
bate programs for DSM. Some utilities pay 30 to 50% of the installed cost,
while others base their rebate programs on the peak-kilowatt-demand
savings achieved by new equipment.
DSM programs consist of planning and monitoring activities which
are designed to encourage consumers to modify their level and pattern
of electricity usage. Energy conservation is often rewarded by utility re-
bate programs. It may include energy audits, weatherization, high-effi-
ciency motors, Energy Management, DDC systems and HVAC systems
and equipment.
Consolidated Edison has a program for organizations that can re-
duce their summer electricity bills without buying new equipment. Dur-
ing the summer months, these customers agree to reduce electric demand
by at least 200 kilowatts on demand. More than 100 organizations have
been involved in this program. Duquesne Light Company in Pittsburgh
and Georgia Power have interruptible economic development rates that
operate in a similar way.
Con Edison also offers programs with energy audits and rebates for
steam air conditioning, gas air conditioning, high-efficiency electric air
conditioning, cool storage and high-efficiency motors. Georgia Power has
its Good Cents building program for commercial customers with HVAC
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