I. J. Heath: “Unacceptable File Operations in a Relational Data Base,” Proc. 1971 ACM SIGFIDET
Workshop on Data Description, Access and Control, San Diego, Calif. (November 11th-12th, 1971).
BCNF was defined in the following paper (though it was there referred to as third normal form):
E. F. Codd: “Recent Investigations into Relational Data Base Systems,” Proc. IFIP Congress, Stockholm,
Sweden (North-Holland, 1974) and elsewhere.
That same IFIP meeting also saw the first presentation of Armstrong's axioms for FDs:
W. W. Armstrong: “Dependency Structures of Data Base Relationships,” Proc. IFIP Congress, Stockholm,
Sweden (North-Holland, 1974).
MVDs and 4NF and what in Chapter 12 I referred to as Fagin's Theorem 2 were all defined in:
Ronald Fagin: “Multivalued Dependencies and a New Normal Form for Relational Databases,” ACM TODS
2 , No. 3 (September 1977).
The MVD axiomatization was reported in:
Catriel Beeri, Ronald Fagin, and John H. Howard: “A Complete Axiomatization for Functional and
Multivalued Dependencies,” Proc. 1977 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data,
Toronto, Canada (August 1977).
The theory of dependency preservation had its origins in:
Jorma Rissanen: “Independent Components of Relations,” ACM TODS 2 , No. 4 (December 1977).
The following paper is generally credited with being the first to point out that relvars can exist that aren't
equal to the join of any two of their projections, but are equal to the join of three or more (though in fact, as
mentioned in Chapter 9, Codd had effectively made the same observation in his 1969 paper). The paper is also the
source of the chase algorithm; however, it considers only FDs and MVDs, not general JDs.
A. V. Aho, C. Beeri, and J. D. Ullman: “The Theory of Joins in Relational Databases,” ACM TODS 4 , No. 3
(September 1979); previously published in Proc. 19th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer
Science (October 1977).
JDs as such were first defined in:
Jorma Rissanen: “Theory of Relations for Databases─A Tutorial Survey,” Proc. 7th Symposium on
Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science 64
2 Actually there are scores of theoretical results in the computing literature, not just in the field of design theory as such, that could all justifiably
be referred to as “Fagin's Theorem.”