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Tick topography
Palp IV
Palp III
Palpal spurs
Palp II
Palp I
Basis capituli
Infrainternal setae
Dorsal side
Ventral side
Capitulum (Male)
Porose areas
: Oriental Insects 1974; 8(4):505-520.
Figure 1.2 External morphological characters of capitulum.
appropriate niches in the natural environment. The adults that emerge from these
fed nymphs attach to some hosts, feed, and mate, and the fed females drop to ovi-
posit and complete the life cycle. In most of the hard ticks, mating takes place
when the adults are feeding on the hosts. The eggs laid by the unmated females are
not viable or fertile. In some of the Haemaphysalis ticks, the nymphs feed for 3
days, whereas adults feed for 6
7 days. Feeding periods vary in different species
belonging to different genera. On the basis of the number of hosts and feeding
habits, ticks are divided into three types, namely (1) one-host ticks which remain
on a single host from the time of their first attachment as larvae to the time when
they drop as fully fed adults, for example, Boophilus microplus; (2) two-host ticks
in which the larvae attach themselves to the host, feed, and molt into nymphs
which feed on the same host and then drop to the ground. The adults emerging
from these nymphs attach to another host and drop down for egg laying, for exam-
ple, Hyalomma marginatum isaaci. In this case, the fed larvae undergo molting
in the host without detachment from the host; and (3) three-host ticks in which
larvae, nymphs, and adults feed on separate hosts. The vertebrate hosts may be
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