Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Legs: Legs are as in male except as follows: coxa I and II spurs are slightly
smaller; III and IV spurs are much shorter (extend only to or slightly beyond coxal
Related Species 32
The subgenus Herpetobia Canestrini, redefined by Hoogstraal and McCarthy
(1965), contains Indian species such as H. sulcata, H. sundrai, and H. kashmirensis,
which are morphologically related to each other. According to these authors,
H. nepalensis is a “borderline” species between the subgenera Herpetobia and
Haemaphysalis.Thesundrai male is the only one of this group in which lateral
grooves are obsolete; its coxa lack a lanceolate spur of IV (present in sulcata)or
curving spurs (kashmirensis) and have larger spurs than those of nepalensis. The
female sulcata has much larger cornua than those of the other species, a 7/7 dental
formula (4/4 in sulcata and nepalensis, 5/5 or 6/6 in kashmirensis), a different ven-
tral spur on palpal segment III, different coxal spurs, etc.
Host 32,51,120
Immature stages: Not available.
Adults: Sheep.
Distribution 32,51,120
India (Uttarakhand).
Ecology 32
Bhowali, the type locality of H. sundrai, lies between 5,000 and 6,000 ft altitude in
an outer Himalayan valley. Some steep surrounding hills reach 7,000 ft. The cli-
mate is temperate with warm summers and an average annual rainfall of about
60 inches, mostly from late June and mid-September. Winter snow soon melts
except in the higher hills. The forests are mostly pine with little undergrowth.
Ravines have oak forests with scattered rhododendron trees. Uttarkashi, where
H. sundrai was collected, is at approximately 3,400 ft altitude in the Bhagirathi
River valley. The average annual rainfall is about 65 inches, and the climate is
warmer than Bhowali. The plains beside the valley are intensely cultivated, but the
surrounding hills are covered with scrub jungle and at higher altitudes, with pine
forest. Until recently, these areas had a rich large-mammal fauna, consisting mostly
of sambar deer, barking deer, tiger, leopard, Asiatic jackal, yellow-throated marten,
rhesus macaque, Langur, Indian crested porcupine, and black-naped hare. With
development of fruit orchards and increased human habitation, the deer, tiger, and
leopard have become extremely rare. Domestic sheep and goats are common in the
Uttarkashi area but rare around Bhowali. Cattle occasionally graze in forests in
both areas.
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