Adults: Cattle, buffalo, yak, sheep, goat, rodents, insectivores, cow calf, horse,
hare, and from flag dragging.
India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh).
All H. cornupunctata collections from the above areas are during spring and
fall season. The altitude of the localities in Himachal Pradesh, where H. cor-
nupunctata was collected, ranges between 1,050 and 2,750 m. The total aver-
age yearly rainfall in the area varies from 100 to 150 cm. Most of the rainfall
takes place between early July and mid-September. During the winter months,
many places get moderate to heavy snowfall, but some localities at lower ele-
vations such as Rakh (approximately 1,050 m) and Nogi (approximately
1,250 m) do not get any snowfall. Places at higher elevations, such as Kalpa
(approximately 2,750 m) remain snowbound for more than six months in a
year. The surrounding hills around Kalpa, distances of barely 3
5 km, remain
snowbound all through the year. The vegetation of the different localities also
varies greatly. Between 2,500 and 2,750 m, most of the localities have patches
of coniferous forests, with very little undergrowth. Above 2,750 m, the terrain
is mostly alpine.
2.4 Structurally Intermediate Haemaphysalines
2.4.1 Subgenus Herpetobia
The subgenus Herpetobia is phylogenetically intermediate between the structurally
primitive and advanced subgenera of Haemaphysalis. All Herpetobia immatures
and adults have SA-pattern rectangular basis capituli. Their palpi, however, are
compact, but are slightly salient in certain nymphs. They represent the forerunners
of broad palpi characterizing SA haemaphysalines. Larval Herpetobia lacks cornua
and discrete coxal spurs, retaining the features of their reptile-parasitizing progeni-
tors. Adult cornua are moderately large in males and obsolete or small in females.
The compact adult palpi are usually ridged posterodorsally in H. sulcata and
H. kashmirensis, which was an evolutionary experiment
that failed to survive
(Hoogstraal and Kim).
Herpetobia is composed of four species and is a relict pivotal branch of
Haemaphysalis. The type species is H. sulcata and also constitutes H. kashmirensis,
H. nepalensis, and H. sundrai. Geographical distribution pattern of these species is
much like those of SP subgenera Alloceraea and Allophysalis.