Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Nymph ( Figures 2.8 and 2.9 ) 79
Overall body length is approximately 1.6 mm, breadth 1.0 mm.
Capitulum: Basis capitulum is dorsally approximately twice as broad as long
(including cornua); cornua are broad, approximately one-fifth as long as the base
of basis capitulum, and with bluntly rounded apices. Palpi are elongate and clavate.
Hypostome is as long as palpi, approximately 2.7 times as long as broad; apex is
bluntly rounded; dental formula is 2/2, with six to eight denticles in a file, followed
posteriorly by several (two to four) smaller denticles or hooklets.
Scutum: Scutum is approximately 1.1 times as broad as long. Cervical grooves
are converging anteriorly, thence diverging to posterior one-third of scutal length.
Punctations are few and obscure.
Legs: Legs are moderately long and narrow. Coxal spurs are each broadly trian-
gular, apically blunted, sub-equal, extending well beyond posterior margin.
Larva ( Figures 2.8 and 2.9 ) 79
Overall body length is approximately 0.9 mm, breadth 0.6 mm.
Capitulum: Basis capitulum is dorsally approximately 2.5 times as broad as
long; external margins are approximately straight anteriorly, and cornua are lack-
ing. Palpi outlines and general features are approximately as in nymph, except as
follows: segment III is lacking ventral spur. Hypostome is longer than palpi; hook-
lets and dental features are approximately as in nymph.
Scutum: Scutum is approximately 1.4 times as broad as long, broadest at ante-
rior one-third of scutal length. Cervical grooves are as arcs extending somewhat
beyond scutal mid-length. Punctations number three or four pairs. Legs are moder-
ately long and narrow.
Legs: Coxa II and I are each with a broadly rounded marginal ridge replacing
spur; III with spur very small, short, broadly rounded.
Host 79,110
Immature stages: Small rodents, foxes, hares, wild goats, domestic cats, Himalayan
thar, mice, domestic sheep, Himalayan Monal pheasant, mountain field mouse/vole,
sweeping the ground vegetation.
Adults: Serow/goat antelope, Himalayan thar, artiodactyl mammals, brown gor-
al, sheep, goats, snow goats, yak, cattle, horses, man, marmots (rodents), domestic
zhum, goral, sweeping the ground vegetation.
Distribution 28,110
India (Uttar Pradesh), Mongolia, Taiwan, China, Nepal.
Ecology 79
The known distribution of this species in Nepal is from 8,100 to 12,500 ft altitude
in the Himalayan range of
the north central part of
the country (north
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