Legs: Legs are long and thin. Coxa are each with a broadly sub-triangular spur
extending well (I) or slightly (II, III) beyond coxal margin; IV spur is small.
Larva ( Figures 2.5 and 2.6 ) 33
Length is approximately 0.9 mm, breadth 0.6 mm.
Capitulum: Basis capitulum is dorsally approximately 4 times as broad as long.
Palpi are as in nymph, except that each is approximately 3 times as long as broad;
segment III ventral spur is almost obsolete. Hypostome is spatulate, as long as
palpi; dental formula is 2/2, with eight to ten denticles in a file.
Scutum: Scutum is 1.3 times as broad as long. Cervical grooves are narrow,
extending a little beyond scutal mid-length. Punctations number approximately
eight. Festoons number 11.
Legs: Coxa I is with spur as in nymph; II and III are with spur as in nymph II
and IV, respectively.
Immature stages: Rats, field mice, mountain voles.
Adults: Sheep, cattle, yak, goat, rodents, horses, mountain voles, and from flag
dragging through forest vegetation.
India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand), Nepal.
All larvae, nymphs, and adults were collected in the pre-monsoon months of May
and June, mostly from 2,700 to 3,400 m alt. Adults from lower elevations
(2,000 m) were from sheep that had descended from alpine pastures a day or two
earlier. Domestic animals were heavily infested by adult H. (A.) garhwalensis,
mostly in the ears, in May and early June but a few were found in late June. The
Indian collecting localities were in narrow alpine valleys and in a narrow sub-
alpine strip of the upper temperate zone of the Western Himalayas. This area has a
severe winter and remains snowbound from November to April. After snow melts
in late April, there is a rich growth of alpine and sub-alpine meadow grass. May
and June are humid owing to frequent showers and hail; daytime temperatures are
a few degrees above freezing and night time frost is frequent. July and August are
mild with occasional showers and hail. The September
October climate is similar
to that of May
Related Species 28
A closely related species is H. warburtoni.Ingarhwalensis, posteroventral spur on
palpal segment III is small, broadly triangular, slightly elevated, not reaching to
posterior margin of palpal segment III, whereas in H. warburtoni
the spur is