Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
3.5 Biology 11,12,14,17,38,87,88
All Haemaphysalis species so far known have a three-host life cycle. The life histo-
ries of at least eight Indian Haemaphysalis species have been studied under the lab-
oratory conditions, the life cycle followed a similar trend in all the species. Studies
under laboratory conditions have shown that there was no difference in the life
cycles of haemaphysaline ticks collected from southern and northern parts of India.
In all except one species, H. obesa, eggs hatched under the ambient temperature
and completed the developmental stages. These ticks fed readily on different labo-
ratory animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, and cow calves; and no difference in
the host preference was observed. Duration of various developmental stages varied
under different temperature conditions. Feeding duration of different stages was
more or less same in different Indian species studied under the laboratory condi-
tions, sometimes varying by 1 or 2 days. Fed weight of female adult fed on domes-
tic cattle was generally higher than those fed on smaller laboratory animals like
rabbit and guinea pigs. There was a direct correlation between fed weight and the
number of eggs laid by the females. The weight of haemaphysaline ticks fed on dif-
ferent laboratory animals varied, the same being more in ticks fed on bigger mam-
mals such as cow calves compared to smaller ones such as guinea pigs. The
circadian periodicity of dropping of the engorged stages was closely associated
with the diurnal activity of the host; and this activity insures a wider distribution of
the species in the appropriate habit. However, in H. bispinosa, it has been observed
that the dropping was during nighttime in the cattle shed when the animal was
resting. The reproductive efficacy was more or less same as that observed in
H. bispinosa and H. campanulata but was less than that of H. spinigera,
H. cuspidata, and H. intermedia.
There is no report of biology of Indian species belonging to primitive species.
However, reports from elsewhere indicated that female of H. inermis and H. kitao-
kai belonging to the primitive subgenus, deposit fewer than 1,000 eggs or less than
20% of the total egg production of most of other haemaphysalines. Each egg and
the resulting larva were unusually larger than those of other subgenera. Immature
stages of primitive species feed fully in 90 min to 6 h, while those of advanced
species require more than 2 days for completion of feeding.
3.6 Distribution of Haemaphysalis Ticks in Different
Biotopes in the KFD Area 16,46
Different species of free-living Haemaphysalis ticks have varied preference for dif-
ferent forest biotopes. The KFD area has a number of diverse biotopes such as for-
est, cultivated valleys, and grasslands. Each biotope is distinguished into a number
of associations. These associations are interspersed to form a mosaic. The forest
biotope, which only provides the necessary physical and biotic environment, forms
the main habitat of the tick fauna. This is divisible into three types: semi-evergreen,
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