Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
H. aponommoides females. Ventrally, the basis capituli are posteriorly narrower in
H. inermis females than in H. aponommoides females.
2.2 Subgenus Allophysalis
General Characteristics
Only H. warburtoni and H. garhwalensis are found in India, representing this subgenus.
These species display combinations of SP structural conformity and of stepwise
or abrupt advances in SP ranks. Female basis capitulum displays more primitiveness
than male. Female Allophysalis palpi remain elongate, as in Alloceraea. Male palpi
are shorter or compact but not broadened. The adult palpus for the first time bears a
small ventral spur, which is, however, medially rather than posteriorly directed, dis-
playing bird-parasitizing and primitive mammal parasitizing characteristic of struc-
turally advanced (SA) subgenus Ornithophysalis. Certain nymphs and/or adults
approach an SA pattern in part, but no larvae do so. Each immature Allophysalis has
a short, broadly angular basis capitulum. Immature Allophysalis basis capitulum pat-
tern ranges from short, remarkably laterally expanded type to posterolaterally con-
vex and cornua bearing (H. warburtoni nymph). Immature palpi remain elongate, as
in Alloceraea. The first ventral spur on immature palpi is seen in the H. warburtoni
nymph. The Allophysalis adult basis capituli are variously shaped and armed with
usually variable cornua. Adult coxal spurs are now moderately sized or fairly large
and exhibit various triangular, spatulate, lanceolate, or hook-like forms, characteris-
tic of haemaphysalines specialized for parasitizing Artiodactyla.
Keys to Identify Species of Subgenus Allophysalis
Posteroventral spur on palpal segment III is small, broadly triangular, and slightly ele-
vated, not reaching to the posterior margin of segment III; coxal spurs are blunt, stout,
sub-equal in size, and gradually tapering; only trochanter I has a crest-like spur; basis
capitulum is approximately 1.6 times as long as broad...................[H. garhwalensis]
Posteroventral spur on palpal segment III is small, broadly triangular, reaching
only to anterior of palpal segment II and inwardly directed; coxal spurs are stout
and blunt; all trochanters have crest-like spurs; spiracular plate is not circular and
oblongate...................[H. warburtoni]
Basis capitulum is dorsally 2.5 times as broad as long; palps are longer than in
male; palpal segment II is dorsally 1.4 times as long as broad; coxal spurs are more
or less equal in length in both sexes...................[H. garhwalensis]
Basis capitulum is dorsally 1.9 times as broad as long; coxal spurs are smaller
than in male; spiracular plate is circular...................[H. warburtoni]
Comparative figures of H. garhwalensis and H. warburtoni are given below.
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