or slightly longer than palpi; dental formula is as in nymph, with denticles in files
of five to seven.
Scutum: Scutum is about 1.2 times as broad as long, broadest near mid-length,
margin thence abruptly curving to relatively narrow, broadly rounded posterior
margin. Cervical grooves are parallel, extending to or beyond scutal mid-length.
Legs: Coxa I is with spur broadly triangular, extending well beyond posterior
margin; II and III are each with a faint ridge or ridge obsolete.
Related Species 71
Sharif recognized two varieties of Haemaphysalis leachi in India, the typical form
and the variety indica. The variety indica has now been raised to a species level
and is reported from India only. The name leachi has been used for the ticks from
Africa, Southern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. In the male of indica the dorsal
retroverted spurs on the lateral salience of palpal article II are blunt or obsolete,
whereas in the leachi the dorsal retroverted spurs on the lateral salience of palpal
article II are well developed and pointed. In the African ticks of leachi, the puncta-
tions are numerous and the cornua are more pointed than indica.
Haemaphysalis indica is related morphologically to H. canestrinii. The adults of
indica are smaller (total length: male, 1.58
1.88 mm; female, 1.65
2.63 mm) than
those of canestrinii (male, 1.80
2.85 mm), have a much
broader basis capituli (1.45 mm (male of indica) vs. 2.00 mm (male of canestrinii)
times as broad as long), few scutal punctations (moderately numerous in canestri-
nii), a definite dorsal projection on the male spiracular plate (obsolete or almost so
in canestrinii), an ovate female spiracular plate (sub-quadrate in canestrinii), etc.
The posterodorsal margin of palpal segment II differs distinctly; in the male indica
the spur is shorter, broader, and more externally situated than in canestrinii; the
broadly triangular spur-like angle of the female indica is replaced by a definite,
elongately triangular spur in canestrinii. 84
2.70 mm; female, 2.25
Host Preference and Ecology 71
Small carnivores, especially mongooses, are important hosts of the adult stage.
Other small- and medium-sized carnivores, such as the rattle, jackal, fox, and
domestic dog also are parasitized by adults. Among medium- and large-size carni-
vores, immature stages were collected on the civet and leopard. It may be assumed
that these animal species are also parasitized by the adult H. indica.
It is interesting to note that adults and immature stages have been taken together
on various mongooses, jackal, and fox. One collection of nymphs was from a
shrew. Thus, while the nymph and larva of H. indica may behave as burrow-
infesting parasites, they do not appear to be so strictly confined to this niche as
immature stages of the African H. leachi.