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moderate size. Palpi are quite elongate, with a basolateral salience similar to that of
male. Hypostome is elongate, slightly longer than palpi; lateral margins are slightly
convex; dental formula is as in male but with one to four more denticles in each
Scutum: Scutum is glossy, sub-circular, length and width sub-equal, margins
rounded. Cervical grooves are as in male except that shallow, diverging grooves
extend from cervical pits to beyond mid-length of scutum. Punctations are shallow,
indistinct, small and medium size, moderately numerous, widely spaced.
Nymph ( Figures 2.106 and 2.107 ) 141
Mean body length is approximately 1.4 mm.
Capitulum: Basis capitulum is dorsally approximately twice as wide as long;
dorsal cornua are as in males; ventral cornua are short, bluntly rounded in each
basolateral corner; a short seta is present just anterior of each basolateral juncture,
and a pair of comparatively large posthypostomal bristles is also present. Palpi are
with a wide basolateral salience. Hypostome is slightly longer than palpi, elongate;
lateral margins are slightly convex; dental formula is 2/2, with denticles broad in
files of nine to eleven.
Scutum: Scutum is slightly shorter than wide; margins are rounded to mid-
length. Cervical grooves are deep and parallel or slightly converging, shallow and
diverging on posterior half of scutum. Punctations are rare, obscure.
Legs: Coxa I is with a large, elongately triangular basal spur; II, III, and IV
each is with a deltoid spur successively decreasing in length.
Larva ( Figures 2.106 and 2.107 ) 141
Mean body length is approximately 0.70 mm and width 0.52 mm.
Capitulum: Basis capitulum is quite similar to that of nymph, no ventral setae
noted. Palpi are 1.6 times as long as wide. Hypostome is similar to that of nymph.
Scutum: Scutum is 1.4 times as wide as long; lateral margins are anteriorly
gradually rounded. Cervical grooves are straight, parallel, extending to scutal
mid-length. Punctations number four, each with a small seta.
Legs: Coxa I is with a large basal spur similar to that of nymph; II is with a
very short, wide spur; III is with a minute, barely discernible inner spur.
Species Relationship 141
H. kyasanurensis of southwestern India and Ceylon is closely related to H. formo-
sensis of Formosa and southeastern Asia, a seldom-collected species whose imma-
ture stages remain unknown. Both species are moderately large and share structural
characters that easily separate the formosensis group from others in this genus.
H. kyasanurensis differs from H. formosensis in having longer palpal segment II
with a distinct, abrupt basolateral salience; typically three rather than four infrain-
ternal setae; a shorter ventral spur of segment III; 4/4 rather than 6/6 dental
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