Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
2 Structurally Primitive
A. Subgenus Alloceraea
B. Subgenus Allophysalis
C. Subgenus Aboimisalis
There are 17 structurally primitive haemaphysaline species included in four sub-
genera from all over the world. In India, only four species representing three subge-
nera among the structurally primitive (SP),
i.e., Alloceraea, Allophysalis, and
Aboimisalis, are present.
2.1 Subgenus Alloceraea
General Characteristics 85,110
Only one species, H. aponommoides, is found in India, representing the subgenus
Alloceraea. Its structure apparently represents an Aponomma-like primitive proto-
type haemaphysaline, which was presumed to have evolved in the late Paleozoic or
early Mesozoic era. The basis capitulum is short and laterally convex, has
lateral projections, and lacks cornua; the palpi are narrowly elongate or
clavate; segment III lacks a ventral spur and segment IV is in apical pit; dental for-
mula is 3/3; coxal spurs are small or obsolete; the body integument is leathery; and
the genital aperture is slit-like. The apron of the male is short and rough. Alloceraea
males, nymphs, and larvae each also have a laterally convex or otherwise laterally
projecting basis capituli lacking posterior cornua and elongate palpi lacking a
ventral spur, but their dental formulae are 2/2. These are the only males with a
2/2 dental formula in the entire genus Haemaphysalis.
Keys to Identify Species of Subgenus Alloceraea
Basis capitulum is laterally convex or otherwise laterally projecting; lacking poste-
rior cornua, and elongate palpi lacking a ventral spur, but their dental formulae are
2/2; punctations are numerous, superficial, noncontiguous, closely spaced, and
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