Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Studies carried out on the seasonal prevalence of this species on goats by Bhat
et al. in 1986 indicated that maximum number of adult population was in October
to December in Shimoga district of Karnataka state, India.
Studies on the biology of this species conducted at 22 C by Sapre in 1949 indi-
cated that the life cycle appeared to be completed in about 102 days. According to
Sapre, the oviposition period was 7
15 days and the period of survival of female
after oviposition had ceased to 3
6 days; the duration of the egg stage was about
30 days, the larvae were engorged in about 7 days; the nymphs were attached for
about 9 days and the parasitic period of the adult was about 10 days.
The life of H. bispinosa was studied by Nakamura and Yajima in 1969 in Japan.
Rearing and observation were conducted in the laboratory; rabbits were used as a
host. The ticks were fed during their feeding period on the ears of rabbits.
The average duration of each stage was 24 days in the egg, and 31.4 days in the
larva. In the nymphal stage, 42 days were required for nymphs that become adults
within the year and 211 days for nymphs that hibernate. Duration for adults was
31.4 days for adults that die within the year and 139 days for adults that hibernate
in the pre-feeding period, 106 days for adults that hibernate in the post-feeding
period. Generations are repeated twice a year for adults that hibernate, once a year
for nymphs that hibernate.
An interesting feature about this tick appears to be the presence of obligatory par-
thenogenesis and the absence of spermatozoa in a fair proportion of the H. bispinosa
males in Australia. In India, so far there is no report of parthenogenesis in this species.
Related Species
It is related with H. ramachandrai; the relationship has been discussed under
H. ramachandrai.
Host 26,40,93,114,117,119,120,127
Immature stages: Dog, jungle cat, black-naped hare, crested porcupine, Indian
roller bird, cattle, goat, sheep, jackal, leopard, bonnet monkey, spotted deer, horses,
langur monkey, buffalo.
Adults: Sheep, goat, jackal, mongoose, mule, barking deer, buffalo, cattle, cat,
dog, donkey, horse, pony, rabbit, rat, spotted deer, tiger, common wood shrike,
white handed babbler, black-naped hare, wild mammals, rodents.
Distribution 1,8,26,40,93,114,117,120,127,143
India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Assam, West Bengal,
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh, Andhra
Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Mizoram, Orissa, Sikkim, Andaman islands), Sri
Lanka, lowlands of Nepal, Pakistan, Burma, China, USSR, Japan, Australia, New
Zealand, Indonesia, Oceania, Siberia, Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, East Indies
(Southeast Asian islands), Vietnam.
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