Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Capitulum: Basis capitulum is dorsally approximately 2 times as broad as long;
external margins are straight; cornua are broadly triangular, one-third as long as the
base of basis capitulum. Palpi are broadly campanulate, each palpus about 1.3
times as long as broad. Hypostome is as in nymph, except slightly broader and
with one or two fewer denticles in each file.
Scutum: Scutum is about 1.3 times as broad as long. Cervical grooves are nar-
row and extend beyond mid-length. Punctations are obscure.
Related Species 80
This species belongs to cornigera group. The H. cornigera group consists of 10
taxa occurring in certain areas of the Oriental, Palearctic, Australian, and Ethiopian
faunal regions. Adults are characterized by broadly salient palpi, mostly with
unusual modifications in the outline and posterodorsal spur of segment III, and by
the presence of one or two lanceolate spurs of the male coxa IV. Spurs in coxa IV
in H. anomala are closely spaced and approximately equal in size, whereas in
H. shimoga it is well spaced, the outer one is needlelike and long while the inner
one is smaller.
The related species among the Indian Haemaphysalis is H. shimoga. The imma-
ture stages of shimoga and anomala are much alike, but the cornua of anomala are
at least twice as large as in shimoga and the scutum of each stage of anomala is
more elongate. Adults of these species differ more markedly than nymphs and
Ecology 80
The species has been reported from moist deciduous forests between 800 and
3,400 ft altitude in western Himalayan foothills and valleys. Temperature reaches
40 C in summer and 1 C, or rarely slightly less, in winter. Much of the total
annual rain (125
300 cm) falls during the monsoons, which begin in late June or
early July and continue to mid-September. Most adult ticks were taken during the
monsoons; all immatures were collected in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon
months. H. anomala survived the faunal changeover in these foothill and valley
forests. Adult and immature ticks apparently thrive on the large and small verte-
brate animals now inhabiting this environment.
Life Cycle 80
The three-host type of life cycle was completed in 129 days (parent female feeding
to F 1 female feeding) under the laboratory conditions. The original parent female
was taken fully engorged from a cow at Satyanarayan, Uttar Pradesh.
Hosts 67,80,120
Immature stages: Rat, coucal, crow pheasant, and from flag dragging through
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