Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Related Species 142
Males of this species are differentiated from H. cornigera by the long, sub-equal
spurs of coxa IV (inner spur much longer than outer), the form of the basoventral
palpal margin, and the form of the lateral wings of palpal segment III. The Indian
species is also readily separated from the Formosan H. cornigera taivana
Sugimoto, which has a definite median dorsobasal spur on palpal segment III; long,
distinct lateral grooves on the scutum; a larger spur on coxa III; and the two long
spurs that meet apically from coxa IV.
Life History 9
The maximum life span of adults observed under laboratory conditions (90
RH and at 17 28 C) was 335 days. During laboratory rearing experiments, most
of the adults attached within 24 h after release on the host cow calf. The average
amount of blood imbibed by the tick was approximately 170 times that of their
average unengorged body weight (2.5 mg). The repleted females had a weight
range of 272
500 mg. The oviposition commenced 4
7 days after the engorge-
ment and lasted for 18
31 days. Egg laying commenced abruptly, reached a peak
between the third and the seventh day, and tapered gradually with slight fluctua-
tions. The spent females died 6
15 days after the completion of oviposition. The
loss in the initial weight after the completion of oviposition ranged from 56% to
76%. Hatching commenced 35
42 days after the initiation of oviposition. The pro-
cess started with the oldest eggs laid on the first day and ended with those laid on
the last day. The duration for complete hatching of a brood ranged from 13 to 31
days, and was more or less equal to the period taken for oviposition. In 10 broods
observed, the maximum longevity of unfed larvae was 338 days. The larvae could
be fed successfully as early as 5
6 days after hatching. The engorgement took
place in two well-defined phases. The larvae stayed on the chicks in the first prepa-
ratory phase for approximately 24 h, before passing on to the second “repletion”
phase prior to dropping. The larvae, which did not pass on to the second phase in
the second night were carried on for the subsequent nights for repletion followed
by dropping on the subsequent days. The maximum longevity of unengorged
nymphs was 219 days. During the parasitic phase the nymphs followed a similar
sequence of events as the larvae did. The age of the nymphs fed on the chicks ran-
ged from 28 to 142 days. Engorged nymphs molted into adults 25
29 days after
dropping ( Table 2.4 ).
Host 26,114,142
Immature stages: Information not known.
Adults: Sambar deer, cattle, goat, sheep, cow, bison.
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