Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
predominant species. This species has been more prevalent in deciduous and semi-
deciduous forest than in evergreen or semi-evergreen forests.
Hosts 16,47,93,114,117,119,120,139
Immature stages: Indian gray mongoose, mouse deer, sambar deer, black-naped
hare, crested porcupine, Asiatic jackal, toddy cat, peacock, white throated ground
thrush bird, jungle fowl, jungle myna, buffalo, shrew, jungle babbler, crow pheas-
ant, red vented bulbul, rat (1, 5, 6, 9), sheep, tiger, jungle cat, langur monkey, cat-
tle, bonnet monkey, panther, wild dog, squirrel, man, and from flag dragging and
Adults: Asiatic jackal, Sambar deer, cattle, wild animals, buffalo, tiger, leopard,
bear, Indian bison, jungle cat, small Indian civet, black-naped hare, mouse deer,
wild dog, bullock, rat, jungle fowl, jungle myna, peacock, white throated ground
thrush bird, and from flag dragging and handpicking under stones and bushes.
Distribution 47,93,113,114,117,120
India (Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Kerala,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Orissa, Tamil Nadu), Sri
Ecology 47,118
H. spinigera is essentially a forest-inhabiting species, where it parasitizes on a vari-
ety of mammals and birds. H. spinigera is the commonest of all ticks found in
ground drags and on vegetation in the KFD area. All the areas where the species
has been reported are forests and the vegetation ranges from wet evergreen to moist
deciduous. The rainfall is from heavy to moderate. Boshell (1969) has given a
detailed eco1ogic description of the KFD area in Karnataka state. Other areas
where the species have been reported also appear to have a more or less similar
2.7.2 Haemaphysalis shimoga
This species, collected from KFD area, was first described as a new subspecies of
Haemaphysalis cornigera by Hoogstraal and Trapido in 1964. Later on, the subspe-
cies status was raised to species level ( Figure 2.58 ). 142
Male ( Figures 2.59 and 2.60 ) 142
Mean body length measures 3.1 mm, width 1.8 mm.
Capitulum: Basis capituli are rectangular, 1.8
2.0 times as wide as long; cornua
are three-fourths as long as the base of basis capitulum, distinctly longer than their
own basal width, sharply tapering. Palpi are short and widely salient. Hypostome is
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