Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Legs: Legs are moderately long and stout. Coxa I has a short triangular spur,
and II and III have small ridge-like projections; other leg characters are as in
Species Relationship 47
H. spinigera is a member of group cornigera, subgroup spinigera in the subgenus
Kaiseriana. The adults as well as the nymph of H. spinigera are characterized by
broad flared salience on palpal segment II, which is produced into spur-like projec-
tion at its ventrolateral angle. Adults of other Indian species, which possess this
characteristic, are H. indica and H. canestrinii. From both these species, the male
of H. spinigera can be easily distinguished by the presence of an elongated dagger-
like spur on coxa IV and its 5/5 dental formula instead of 4/4. The female can be
separated by the presence of a median triangular spur on the dorsobasal margin of
palpal segment III. Moreover, both the sexes of H. spinigera possess a long and
pointed spur on coxa I, which in the case of H. indica and H. canestrini are
rounded. Other Indian species in which the adults possess broad and flared salience
on palpal segment II are H. shimoga, H. anomala, H. doenitzi, H. megalaimae, and
H. minuta. Of these, H. shimoga and H. anomala are the closest. In both these spe-
cies, coxa IV in the male possesses two long dagger-like spurs, while the female
lacks ventrolateral spur on palpal segment II. The adults of the remaining species
mentioned above can also be distinguished by the absence of ventrolateral spur on
palpal segment II.
Among the nymphs, the species possessing a sharp and distinct spur on the ven-
trolateral angle of palpal segment II are H. canestrini, H. indica, H. anomala, and
H. shimoga. The former two can be distinguished from H. spinigera by small spurs
on the ventral side of palpal segment II, and on coxa I to IV, and by smaller cor-
nua. H. anomala and H. shimoga nymphs are indeed difficult to distinguish from
H. spinigera, but a careful examination reveals that the dorsolateral angle of palpal
segment II is angular in H. spinigera and rounded in H. anomala and H. shimoga.
Besides, the ventrolateral spur in H. spinigera is shorter and more pointed. The pal-
pal segment II of the nymphs of H. kinneari and H. kyasanurensis also possess
wide and flared salience, in which the ventrolateral margin is slightly angular but
lacks a distinct spur.
In the larva of H. spinigera, unlike the adults and the nymph, the salience on
palpal segment II is not broad and flared. It shows resemblance to H. kyasanuren-
sis, H. shimoga, H. anomala, H. kinneari, and H. turturis. Trapido et al. (1964)
have well described the distinguishing characters of H. spinigera from all these
species, except H. anomala. H. anomala shows more resemblance to H. shimoga
than to H. spinigera.
Life Cycle Under Laboratory Conditions 47,14
Ghalsasi and Dhanda in 1974 and Bhat in 1979 studied biology of this species
under laboratory conditions. In the laboratory, the life cycle was completed in
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