In relinquishing the throne, Lili'uokalani surrendered not to the conspirators, but to U.S.
ambassador John Stevens. She believed that the U.S. government, which had assured her
of Hawaiian independence and had signed numerous friendly treaties, would be outraged
by the overthrow. Indeed, incoming President Grover Cleveland was appalled at the events
which had transpired in Hawai'i, and he sent a delegation to the islands to research their
legality, with hopes of transferring lands back to the queen. Meanwhile, when the conspir-
ators brought the movement for annexation to Congress, it failed to pass given the shaky
ground on which it stood. Not to be deterred, they refused to reinstate Lili'uokalani, and
instead continued to operate as a republic with Sanford Dole at the helm.
An unsuccessful countercoup was staged in 1895. After a cache of weapons was found
in the queen's garden, Lili'uokalani was relegated to house arrest in a bedroom of 'Iolani
Palace. Over the next couple of years, two more annexation movements would be offered