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The situation is slightly different for the red- and orange-fluorescent proteins.
Comparative studies are widely missing and, therefore, the mutations which influ-
ence t Fl are almost unknown. Even the general decay mechanisms are not yet
described. The timescale of their biotechnological evolution can be roughly esti-
mated to be a decade, based on the previous developments with avFPs. We expect
that orange and red FPs will be improved with respect to t Fl and F Fl once the most
appropriate candidates for imaging purposes are identified.
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG JU650/
2-2). We are indebted to Nediljko Budisa for the generous gift of proteins with unnatural amino
acids. We also thank Dagmar Auerbach for careful proofreading.
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