the father to forge his own future? Moving back to the national level,
can we not draw a lesson of advancement rather than retrenchment for
the French-Canadian people: an identity forged as well as inherited? Is
the real (or at least an alternative) message of these early novels less the
defeat of the father than the ultimate victory of subsequent genera-
tions? Are the seeds of future resistance already 'planted' in the collect-
ive unconscious and perceptible in the landscape if not always the plot?
Such questions provide an apt transition towards the next chapter,
since both Antoine Gérin-Lajoie's Jean Rivard and Laure Conan's
Angéline de Montbrun will see the protagonist's future preceded by the
death of the father.