/* If two command-line args are used,
then generate an out-of-bounds exception. */
if(a==2) {
int c[] = { 1 };
c[42] = 99; // generate an out-of-bounds exception
} catch(ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
System.out.println("Array index out-of-bounds: " + e);
public static void main(String args[]) {
try {
int a = args.length;
/* If no command-line args are present,
the following statement will generate
a divide-by-zero exception. */
int b = 42 / a;
System.out.println("a = " + a);
} catch(ArithmeticException e) {
System.out.println("Divide by 0: " + e);
The output of this program is identical to that of the preceding example.
So far, you have only been catching exceptions that are thrown by the Java run-time system.
However, it is possible for your program to throw an exception explicitly, using the throw
statement. The general form of throw is shown here:
throw ThrowableInstance;
Here, ThrowableInstance must be an object of type Throwable or a subclass of Throwable.
Primitive types, such as int or char, as well as non-Throwable classes, such as String and
Object, cannot be used as exceptions. There are two ways you can obtain a Throwable object:
using a parameter in a catch clause, or creating one with the new operator.
The flow of execution stops immediately after the throw statement; any subsequent
statements are not executed. The nearest enclosing try block is inspected to see if it has a
catch statement that matches the type of exception. If it does find a match, control is
transferred to that statement. If not, then the next enclosing try statement is inspected, and
so on. If no matching catch is found, then the default exception handler halts the program
and prints the stack trace.
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