// compute and return volume
double volume() {
return width * height * depth;
class OverloadCons2 {
public static void main(String args[]) {
// create boxes using the various constructors
Box mybox1 = new Box(10, 20, 15);
Box mybox2 = new Box();
Box mycube = new Box(7);
Box myclone = new Box(mybox1); // create copy of mybox1
double vol;
// get volume of first box
vol = mybox1.volume();
System.out.println("Volume of mybox1 is " + vol);
// get volume of second box
vol = mybox2.volume();
System.out.println("Volume of mybox2 is " + vol);
// get volume of cube
vol = mycube.volume();
System.out.println("Volume of cube is " + vol);
// get volume of clone
vol = myclone.volume();
System.out.println("Volume of clone is " + vol);
As you will see when you begin to create your own classes, providing many forms
of constructors is usually required to allow objects to be constructed in a convenient and
efficient manner.
A Closer Look at Argument Passing
In general, there are two ways that a computer language can pass an argument to a subroutine.
The first way is call-by-value. This approach copies the value of an argument into the formal
parameter of the subroutine. Therefore, changes made to the parameter of the subroutine
have no effect on the argument. The second way an argument can be passed is call-by-reference.
In this approach, a reference to an argument (not the value of the argument) is passed to the
parameter. Inside the subroutine, this reference is used to access the actual argument specified
in the call. This means that changes made to the parameter will affect the argument used to
call the subroutine. As you will see, Java uses both approaches, depending upon what is passed.
In Java, when you pass a primitive type to a method, it is passed by value. Thus, what
occurs to the parameter that receives the argument has no effect outside the method. For
example, consider the following program:
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